July 17, 2019

Canker sores: causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.

Canker sore is the most painful sores in the mouth. The cause is unknown but thought to be associated with stress or tissue injury which could trigger or aggravate a canker sore.

Other triggers may include: poor nutrition, food allergies, menstruation, certain foods - including citrus or acidic fruits and vegetables (such as lemons, oranges, pineapples, apples, figs, tomatoes, and strawberries), can trigger a canker sore or make the problem worse.

It’s also the most common type of mouth ulcer. Some people notice them inside their lips or cheeks. They’re usually white or yellow and surrounded by red, inflamed soft tissue.
Canker sores are different from fever blisters, which usually are on the outside of the lips or the corners of the mouth. Unlike fever blisters, canker sores are not contagious.

Types of canker sore

  • Simple canker sores; These may appear three or four times a year and last up to a week. They typically occur in people within the ages of 10 to 20.
  • Complex canker sores; These are less common and occur more often in people who have previously had them.

What are the symptoms of canker sore 

  • Small white or yellow oval-shaped sore in your mouth
  • Painful red area in your mouth
  • Tingling sensation in your mouth

In some cases, other symptoms may also be present, this include the following:

  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Fever
  • Feeling unwell

How you can prevent canker sore

  • Employ stress reduction methods and calming techniques, such as deep breathing and meditation
  • Avoid excessive irritating foods including acidic or spicy foods.
  • Avoid irritation from gum chewing.
  • Brush your teeth with a soft brush after meals and floss daily which will keep your mouth free of irritating foods.

How canker sore can be treated 

  • Canker sores usually heal without treatment. However, there are many helpful lifestyle changes you can make to treat canker sores.
  • Brush and floss your teeth regularly to prevent a bacterial infection.
  • Avoid spicy foods to speed up the healing process.
  • Drinking milk or eating yogurt or ice cream can also help reduce the pain.
  • Pain can sometimes be severe. You can lessen the discomfort by gargling with mouthwash or salt water. It may feel uncomfortable at first, but it will help reduce pain.

Some over-the-counter topical products can help relieve and heal sores, these include the following:

  • Benzocaine (Orabase, Zilactin-B, Kank-A)
  • Hydrogen peroxide rinses (Peroxyl, Orajel)
  • Fluocinonide (Vanos)

Your doctor or dentist may prescribe:

  • Antimicrobial mouth rinse, such as Listerine or mouth rinses with chlorhexidine (Peridex, Periogard)
  • Antibiotic, such as mouthwashes or pills with doxycycline (Monodox, Adoxa, Vibramycin)
  • Corticosteroid ointment, such as hydrocortisone hemisuccinate or beclomethasone
  • Mouthwash, especially one that contains dexamethasone or lidocaine for inflammation and pain

Healthline: www.healthline.com/health/canker
WebMD: https://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/canker-sores

June 19, 2019

Interesting facts about Dyspareunia Popularly known as Painful Intercourse

What is painful intercourse?

Painful intercourse can occur for reasons that range from structural problems to psychological concerns. Many women have painful intercourse at some point in their lives. 

The medical term for painful intercourse is Dyspareunia, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain that occurs just before, during or after intercourse. Talk to a health care provider if you are having painful intercourse. Treatments focus on the cause, and can help eliminate or lessen this common problem.

What things can cause painful intercourse? 
The problems that can cause pain with intercourse are listed below;
➣Fear of intercourse 
➣Vaginal dryness 
➣Vaginal infections
➣Physical problems
➣Childbirth-related problems

Some myths about painful intercourse;
The size of a man’s penis almost never causes continued painful intercourse. The vagina can stretch to accommodate whatever size penis a woman’s husband has. This is illustrated by the fact that the vagina stretches enough to allow the passage of a baby’s head in delivery.

Some women also believe, because they have been told so that painful intercourse is caused by a tipped or retroverted uterus. One-third of all women have a tipped uterus. It is perfectly “normal” position for the uterus and is almost never the cause of painful intercourse.

What are the possible solutions to some of the under listed problems that causes painful intercourse?

Fear of intercourse: fear of intercourse can cause a painful intercourse. Some women have not dealt well with their sexuality and enter marriage with a distorted view of their bodies, sex or men. Distorting or failing to understand the healthy biblical view of sex can color a woman’s attitude towards sex. A lack of adequate sex education can inhibit a healthy sex life.
Many experts who write about sexual problems often attribute such difficulties to a woman being “overly religious” and inhibited. Actually, it has recently been shown that the healthier a woman’s relationship with God is, the happier will be her sex life.

It is important that every couple planning marriage have premarital counseling and that every woman has pelvic examination before marriage it will help eliminate most concerns about intercourse that couples have on entering marriage.

Vaginal dryness: Vaginal dryness can result from inadequate lubrication. It is normal for a woman to have less lubrication immediately after a period, after menopause, and if she is not fully sexually excited. If discomfort during intercourse is only as a result of poor lubrication at those certain times, you can assume that you are normal. Then you merely use a lubricant when you need it.

Vaginal infection: the virginal infection that most often causes pain with intercourse is monilia vaginitis. Trichomoniasis, which can cause itching in the vagina and vulva, can also cause pain with intercourse. In addition, genital warts (Condyloma) located at the entrance to the vagina can cause painful intercourse.
A vaginal infection should be treated by your health care provider. When the infection is cleared, the pain normally stops. 

Physical problems: Example of some of the physical problem that can cause painful intercourse are as follows:
  • Low grade PID (pelvic inflammatory disease).
  • A Batholin gland infection 
  • Congenital abnormalities of the hymen and vagina
  • An IUD (Intrauterine Device).

Problems associated with pregnancy and childbirth: Many women find intercourse within the last two or three months uncomfortable and at times painful, but it is not really dangerous. Discomfort is due to the swelling of the vagina and vulvar tissues and the fullness of the pelvic structures because of the presence of the baby and the enlarged uterus.

Note: Episiotomies or tears of the vagina is one of the things that can cause pain with intercourse. Occurs mostly when the vagina heals with scarring and is usually worse if a woman is nursing. One of the most common cause of painful intercourse related to childbirth is when a woman is nursing, while a woman is nursing, the Pituary gland suppresses the production of estrogen from the ovaries and stimulates the production of milk from the breasts. This inadequate estrogen causes the vagina to become dry and sensitive. Painful intercourse is common in nursing mothers and a vaginal lubricant can help reduce the dryness.

Remember Health is Wealth 


June 08, 2019

Cataract: what you should know

Cataract is the clouding of the eye's natural lens. It is the most common cause of vision loss in people over 40 years of age and it is the principal cause of blindness in the world. Cataract occurs when protein builds up in the lens of eyes and it could affect anybody regardless of the age, the sex and race.

Types of cataract 

◾️Age related cataract : this occurs as an individual ages
◾️Congenital cataract : this occurs when a baby is born with cloudiness of the eyes. It could be caused by infection, injury or poor development in the womb and it could form during childhood.
◾️Secondary cataract : this happens as a result of other medical conditions e.g diabetes and it also could be as a result of being around toxic substances, radiation, ultraviolet light and some medications such as diuretics and corticosteroid.
◾️Traumatic cataract : It could occur after an injury to the eyes
 It could also be grouped as being sub- capsular, nuclear and cortical cataract.
Sub-capsular cataract : this forms at the back of the eyes.
◾️Nuclear cataract :this type of cataract forms deep in the central zone of the lens and it is usually associated with aging.
◾️Cortical cataract :It has a white, wedge-like opacities and it starts at the peripheral of the lens and then gets to the center in a spoke like fashion.

causes of cataract 

◾️Prolong use of corticosteriods
◾️Previous eyes surgery/ previous eyes  problems
◾️Hormone replacement therapy .
◾️Alcohol consumption .
◾️Family history.

Symptoms of cataract 

◾️Cloudy vision, blurry or foggy
◾️Short sightedness
◾️Changes in the way colours are seen.
◾️Problem driving at night
◾️Problems with glare during the day
◾️Having double vision in an affected eye.
◾️Eyes glasses or contact lenses might not be doing well when used.

Treatment of cataract 

◾️Cataract could be treated with recommended glasses or contact .
◾️Cataract surgery.

Prevention of cataract 

 Although there is no proven way to prevent cataract. But it can be prevented possibly by
◾️Getting your eyes checked regularly.
◾️Taking vitamins C.
◾️Taking diet high in vitamin E

In conclusion, cataract is the clouding of the eyes that could present with cloudy or blurry vision and it can be prevented by taking vitamins C and higher dietary  intake of vitamin E. Cataract can be corrected with recommended glasses or  cataract surgery.

June 07, 2019

World food safety day - food safety tips you should consider

Kitchen is the heart of the home for many folkw. It is a place where family and friends comes together as they prepare meals. At the same time, It is also a place for potential food poisoning
You can get food poisoning when you eat or drink something that is contaminated with any number of bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Common symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and fever.
Foods you should watch out for
Be careful with foods mostly from animals.

Whatch-out for the following raw foods

▫️Meat and poultry
▫️Fish in sushi rolls
▫️Unpasteurized milk
▫️Soft cheeses such as feta and brie, which could be unpasteurized
▫️Uncooked hot dogs and deli meats
You should be careful with raw fruits and vegetables, They  can be a source of food poisoning too.

Tips to food safety 

There three basic tips that includes the following:


1. Wash your hands with soap and water
Use water and apply soap. Use warm water if it is available. Rub hands together and scrub all parts of the hand for 20 seconds. Rinse thoroughly and dry using a clean paper towel. If possible, use a paper towel to turn off the faucet.

2. Sanitize kitchen surfaces
Surfaces should be washed with hot, soapy water. With little or no bleach.
Cleare off refrigerated foods once a week
At least once a week, throw out refrigerated foods that should no longer be eaten. Cooked leftovers should be discarded after 4 days.
3. Keep kitchen appliances clean
Clean the inside and the outside of appliances. Pay particular attention to buttons and handles where cross-contamination to hands can occur.
Rinse produce

4.  Rinse fresh vegetables and fruits under running water just before eating, cutting, or cooking.  If you are cutting before cooking or eating, rinse properly, if possible with salt to prevent microbes from transferring from the outside to the inside of the produce.


1. Separate foods when shopping
Place raw seafood, meat, and poultry in plastic and store them under ready-eat foods inside refrigerator.

2. Separate foods when preparing and serving
Always use a clean cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw seafood, meat, and poultry. Do not place cooked food back on the same plate or cutting board that was used for raw food without thorough washing.


1. Cook foods at safe temperatures
Cook all raw beef, pork, lamb, and veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a safe minimum temperature of 145°F. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least 3 minutes before eating. Cook all raw ground beef, pork, lamb, and veal to a temperature of 160°F. Cook all poultry, including ground turkey and chicken, to a temperature of 165°F.

May 31, 2019

14 Tips To Healthy Diet You Should Know And Practice For Healthy Nutrition

Do you want to live a healthy life? It all start with having a healthy diet. See the tips for healthy nutrition below.

  • Eat three meals a day (breakfast, lunch, and dinner); it is important to remember that dinner does not have to be the largest meal.
  • The bulk of food consumption should consist of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk products.
  • Choose lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts (with emphasis on beans and nuts).
  • Choose foods that are low in saturated fats  , trans fats, cholesterol , salt (sodium), and added sugars; look at the labels because the first listed items on the labels comprise the highest concentrations of ingredients.
  • Control portion sizes; eat the smallest portion that can satisfy hunger and then stop eating.
  • Snacks are OK in moderation and should consist of items like fruit, whole grains, or nuts to satisfy hunger and not cause excessive weight gain.
  • Avoid sodas and sugar  -enhanced drinks  because of the excessive calories in the sodas and sugar drinks; diet drinks may not be a good choice as they make some people hungrier and increase food consumption.
  • Avoid eating a large meal before sleeping to decrease gastroesophageal reflux and weight gain.
  • If a person is angry or depressed , eating will not solve these situations and may make the underlying problems worse.
  • Avoid rewarding children with sugary snacks; such a pattern may become a lifelong  habit for people.
  • Avoid heavy meals in the summer months, especially during hot days.
  • A vegetarian  lifestyle has been promoted for a healthy lifestyle and weight loss ; vegetarians should check with their physicians to be sure they are getting enough vitamins , minerals, and iron in their food.
  • Cooking foods (above 165 F) destroys most harmful bacteria and other pathogens; if you choose to eat uncooked foods like fruits or vegetables, they should be thoroughly washed with running treated (safe to drink) tap water right before eating.
  • Avoid eating raw or undercooked meats of any type

May 08, 2019

what is stress and stress management

Recognizing stress overload:

Life is full of experiences and discoveries, deadlines and demands.
For many, this way of life can cause feelings of anxiety and stress.
Stress isn't always bad, however. In small doses, it can help motivate you to do your best and perform under pressure.
But when you're living in a perpetual state of emergency, your mind and body can pay the price and you can start to feel out of balance.

Stress is cumulative. Your early signs of stress may include headaches, irritability, nervous stomach or disrupted sleep.
Once you learn to recognize your own early warning signs, you will know that these symptoms are your body's way of telling you to slow down and find a way to the stress.
If you do not heed the warning, your stress and anxiety can continue to build and cause serious disruption emotionally, physically, academically and socially.
Stress can impact your relationships, your ability to concentrate or communicate, and it can have a negative effect on your immune system, making you more prone to illness.

The good news is that you can protect yourself by recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress and taking steps to reduce its harmful effects.

Causes of stress

General causes
▪Cognitive dissonance.

Specific cause of stress
 There are many causes of stress in life including:
▪Death: of spouse, family, friend
▪Health: injury, illness, pregnancy
▪Crime: Sexual molestation, robbery
▪Self-abuse: drug abuse, alcoholism, self-harm

▪Family change: separation, divorce, new baby, marriage
▪Sexual problems: getting partner, with partner
▪Argument: with spouse, family, friends, co-workers, boss
▪Physical changes: lack of sleep, new work hours
▪New location: vacation, moving house
▪Money: lack of it, owing it, investing it
▪Environment change: in school, job, house, town, jail

▪Responsibility increase: new dependent, new job
Other stress indicators at work include:
▪Poor communication between teams
▪Lack of feedback on performance
▪Value and contribution
▪Technological change
▪Lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities
▪Dissatisfaction with non-monetary benefits
▪Working long hours
▪Boring and mundane work
▪One day-off incidents
▪Uncomfortable workplace
▪Lack of training.

Common effects of Stress 

Stress affects many aspect of our lives. You may experience mental, behavioral, physical and emotional symptoms. While these symptoms are common during stressful times, people with anxiety disorders may experience them in absence of a stressful experience. Effects include

On your body: Headache, muscle tension or pain, chest pain, fatigue, change in sex drive, stomach upset, sleep problems, frequent illness

On your emotions: Anxiety, restlessness, lack of motivation or focus, irritability or anger, sadness or depression, forgetfulness, feeling overwhelmed, insecurity.

On your behavior: Over or under eating, angry outbursts, drug/alcohol use, social withdrawal, sleeping too much or too little, relationship conflicts, crying spells, avoidance/procrastination.

What is the difference between anxiety and stress?

Stress is the normal physical response that you have when you are faced with a challenge.
Anxiety, on the other hand, is a different condition altogether and is more similar to constant fear. It often occurs for no identifiable reason.
For some people, worry and anxiety can become overwhelming and disrupt their quality of life.
Excessive and lasting bouts of worry may reflect an anxiety disorder and will require different treatment.

Stress management 

Stress management is an important skill and it is worth taking the time to figure out what works best for you. Taking care of your mind and body can go a long way toward managing your stress level and help restore yourself to balance. Here are some suggestions.

♦Get enough Sleep
♦Eat a healthy diet. Sugar and processed foods can make stress worse.
♦Exercise regularly. Find movement you enjoy that allows you to release tension.
♦Learn deep breathing/relaxation techniques
♦Pay attention to negative self-talk.
♦Meditate, for example with Mindfulness-Based Meditation.
♦Find Quiet Places to Study
♦Practice saying "no" to situations and people that add stress to your life
♦Get a massage
♦Talk with a friend or someone you trust
♦Limit your Caffeine intake.
♦Avoid using Alcohol or Other Drugs in an attempt to relieve stress.
♦Manage your time and energy -- you can prioritize your "to-do" list based not only on time but on your energy for the task.
♦Laugh! Watch a funny movie or try Laugh Yoga.
♦Take time for relaxation, fun and hobbies. How about music or dance lessons, yoga or crafts

April 28, 2019

What You Should Know About Anorgasmia


Anorgasmia is the medical term for regular difficulty reaching orgasm after ample sexual stimulation.

The lack of orgasms distresses you or interferes with your relationship with your partner.

Orgasms vary in intensity, and women vary in the frequency of their orgasms and the amount of stimulation needed to trigger an orgasm.

Most women require some degree of direct or indirect clitoral stimulation and don't climax from penetration alone. Plus, orgasms often change with age, medical issues or medications you're taking.

If you're happy with the climax of your sexual activities, there's no need for concern.

However, if you're bothered by the lack of orgasm or the intensity of your orgasms, talk to your healthcare provider about anorgasmia.

What are the signs of anorgasmia

An orgasm is a feeling of intense physical pleasure and release of tension, accompanied by involuntary, rhythmic contractions of your pelvic floor muscles. But it doesn't always look or sound  like it does in the movies.

The way an orgasm feels varies among women, and in an individual, it can differ from orgasm to orgasm.

By definition, the major symptoms of anorgasmia are the inability to have an orgasm or long delays in reaching orgasm that's distressing to you.

Different types of anorgasmia:

  1. Lifelong anorgasmia. You've never had an orgasm.
  2. Acquired anorgasmia. You used to have orgasms, but now have difficulty reaching climax.
  3. Situational anorgasmia. You're able to have an orgasm only in certain circumstances, such as during oral sex or masturbation or only with a certain partner.
  4. Generalized anorgasmia. You aren't able to have an orgasm in any situation or with your partner.

What causes anorgasmia

Orgasm is a complex reaction to various physical, emotional and psychological factors. Difficulties in any of these areas can affect your ability to orgasm.

 Physical causes of anorgasmia

A wide range of illnesses, physical changes and medications can interfere with orgasm:

  • Diseases: Serious illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and their associated affects on psychological well-being can tamper orgasm.
  • Gynecological issues: Gynecologic surgeries, such as hysterectomy or cancer surgeries, can affect orgasm. Also, lack of orgasm often goes with other sexual concerns, such as uncomfortable or painful intercourse.
  • Medications: Many prescription and over-the-counter medications can inhibit orgasm, including blood pressure medications, antipsychotic drugs, antihistamines and antidepressants — particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  • Alcohol and smoking: Too much alcohol can tamper your ability to climax. Smoking can limit blood flow to your sexual organs.
  • Aging: As you age, normal changes in your anatomy, hormones, neurological system and circulatory system can affect your sexuality. Reduced estrogen levels as you transition to menopause and menopausal symptoms, such as night sweats and mood changes, can have an impact on sexuality.

 Psychological causes of Anorgasmia

Many psychological factors play a role in your ability to orgasm, including:

  • Mental health problems, such as anxiety or depression
  • Poor body image
  • Stress and financial pressures
  • Cultural and religious beliefs
  • Embarrassment
  • Guilt about enjoying sex
  • Past sexual or emotional abuse

 Relationship issues of anorgasmia

Couples' problems outside of the bedroom can affect their sexual relationship. Issues might include:

  • Lack of connection with your partner
  • Unresolved conflicts
  • Poor communication of sexual needs and preferences
  • Infidelity or breach of trust

Lifestyle changes and therapy 

For most women, a key part of treatment includes addressing relationship issues and everyday stressors.

Understanding your body and trying different types of sexual stimulation also can help.

👉Understand your body better. Understanding your anatomy and how and where you like to be touched can lead to better sexual satisfaction. If you need a refresher course on your genital anatomy, ask your doctor for a diagram or explore your body in a mirror.

👉Self-stimulation with your hand or a vibrator can help you discover what type of touch feels best to you and can provide information you can share with your partner. If you're uncomfortable with self-exploration, try exploring your body with your partner.

👉Increase sexual stimulation. Women who've never had an orgasm might not be getting enough sexual stimulation. Most women need direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris to orgasm.

👉Switching sexual positions can produce more clitoral stimulation during vaginal penetration. Using a vibrator or fantasizing during sex also can help trigger an orgasm.

For some women, a device called a clitoral vacuum can improve blood flow and increase stimulation. This device is battery operated and hand-held, with a cup that fits over the clitoris.
Seek couples counseling. A counselor can help you work through conflicts in your relationship that can affect your ability to orgasm.

👉Try sex therapy. Sex therapists specialize in treating sexual concerns. Therapy often includes sex education, help with communication skills and behavioral exercises that you and your partner try at home.

April 24, 2019

Benefits Of Eating Okro You Should Know Today

Written By: Adelusi Kehinde Beatrice

Okro or okra known in many English speaking countries as ladies fingers or okra. Okro is a green vegetable,which is low in calories and has high dietary fiber content, it contains no fat or cholesterol.

Benefits of eating okro/okra

There are different benefits of eating okro and they include;

  • Blood sugar stability: okro can stabilize blood sugar levels by slowing it's absorption from the intestines.
  • Natural laxative: The okro pods are rich in mucilage which is a gluey substance, it lubricates the large intestines and this aids easy bowel movements
  • Natural fibre: there are some beneficial bacteria in okro which maintains the PH of the digestive tract which brings about healthy digestion and it keeps people full for a long time.
  • Vitamin c: vitamin c is a water soluble vitamin which is present in okro and it helps to maintain and improve the body's immunity 
  • Vitamin A and antioxidants: the green pods of okro has some beneficial substance such as beta-carotene ,lutein, xanthine with vitamin A,which helps to preserve good vision and keeps skin very fresh and healthy. It prevents cataract. It helps to prevent cancer. 
  • Rich in vitamin K: okro is rich in vitamin K as well and it's a fat soluble vitamin, which is well known for its importance  for bone health and which also plays a key role in blood clotting. 
  • Rich in folates: folate is also found in okro and it's quite crucial during preconceptions and early stage of pregnancy which prevents neural tube.
  • Okro is also rich in iron, calcium, magnesium and manganese. 
  • Diuretics: Okro is also a good diuretics , it enables and aids the body to detoxify itself and enables the body shed excess water weight and prevents bloating.

  1. it helps to prevent kidney disease 
  2. it helps to reduce asthma symptoms 
  3. it can give an individual a shiny and bouncy hair,a boiled okro, cooled and mixed with lemon juice can be applied to hair.
  4. okro Is also good for the brain as it brings about mental boost. 
  5. it's also has anti-inflammatory properties, as a result of this it's very good for inflamed joints, lung inflammation, irritable bowel disease and sore throat. 
  • Supports ulcer healing: okro coats the digestive tract when consumed and it helps to speed up the healing of peptic ulcer.
  1. it helps to prevent migraines ( headaches ).
  2. Okro is a good source of non dairy calcium .
  3. It helps to improve food and body metabolism .
  4. It also helps to protect the liver by stabilizing the surface of the cell membranes of the liver, making it impermeable.
  5. The consumption of okro helps to reduce stress
  6. The oil extract from okro can be used as vegetable oil. 

In conclusion, okro has a wide range of benefit and it's consumption should be advocated for everyone except when contraindicated in individuals with diarrhea, kidney stone, okro allergies and many others. It is relatively available and it can be prepared for eating in multiple ways.

April 22, 2019

Know More About Insomnia, Causes, Symptoms And Types

Insomnia is referred to as the difficulty falling asleep which  could result in day time drowsiness.

Causes of insomnia 

  1. Psychiatric conditions such as depression 
  2. Medical conditions such as hypertension 
  3. Unhealthy sleep habits 
  4. Biological factors 
  5. Unhealthy lifestyles 
  6. Eating pattern 
  7. Underlying sleep disorder 
  8. Sleep apnea
  9. Altered brain function and imbalanced neurotransmitters
  10. Specific substances such as nicotine, alcohol etc.

As earlier stated, medical conditions can cause insomnia and it could be as a result of; nasal or sinus allergies, gastrointestinal problems, endocrine problems such as hyperthyroidism, arthritis, asthma, neurological condition and both acute and chronic low back pain, contraceptives use etc

Underlying sleep disorder  could also cause insomnia such as restless leg syndrome, a neurological condition in which a person has an uncomfortable sensation  of needing to move his or her legs.

Sleep apnea occurs when a person airways becomes partially or completely obstructed during sleep and this leads to pauses in breathing and a drop in oxygen level.

Insomnia could also occur as a result of psychiatric condition such as depression and anxiety.

  • Tension, thought about past events, excessive worrying about future events, feeling overwhelmed by responsibilities, and a feeling of being over stimulated can lead to insomnia

  • Unhealthy lifestyles and poor sleep habits such as working at home late into late evening, being a shift worker, e drinking of alcohol to compensate for loss of loved ones.

  • Poor eating pattern such as eating heavy meals late at night

Insomnia causes, types and treatment

Types of insomnia 

Acute insomnia: a brief episode of difficulty sleeping usually caused by change in lifestyle events  such as stressful changes in person's job, receiving bad news. Acute insomnia often resolve without any treatment.

Chronic insomnia: a long term pattern of difficulty sleeping. When a person has trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at least 3 nights per week for 3 month or longer can be termed chronic insomnia.

Co- morbid insomnia: This is a type of insomnia that occurs with another condition and this could make someone uncomfortable at night.

Onset insomnia: difficulty falling asleep at the beginning of the night.

Maintenance insomnia: inability to stay asleep. People with maintenance insomnia wakes up during the night and have difficulty returning to sleep.

Primary insomnia: it refers to insomnia where no underlying cause could be identified.

Delayed sleep phase syndrome: affects those who are referred to OR termed 'night owls' and they have long term problems getting to sleep until the early hours of the morning and this can cause a long term sleep deprivation in people who needs to get up early

Recommended  sleep hours by National sleep foundation 

  1. Older adults greater than 65 years: average sleep hours is 7-8 hours 
  2. Adult ( 26-64 years ): an average of 7-9 hours 
  3. Young adult(12-25 years ): 7-9 hours
  4. Teenager (14-17 years): average sleep hours 8-10 hours
  5. School age (6-13 years): average sleep hours is 9-11 years 
  6. Preschool (3-5 years): average sleep hours is 10-13 hours 
  7. Toddler (1-2 years): average sleep hours is 11-14 hours 
  8. Infants (4-11months): average sleep hours is 12-15 hours 
  9. Newborn (0-3 months): average sleep hours is 14-17 hours.

Symptoms and signs of insomnia 

  • Difficulty getting to sleep 
  • Waking up during the night subsequently 
  • Waking up too early 
  • Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily living 
  • Difficulty waking up at normal time 
  • Daytime sleepiness or fatigue 
  • Forgetfulness and making of errors 
  • Irritable or grumpy moods
  • Tension headaches 
  • Depression 
  • Anxiety

Steps that can be take to improve sleep 

  1. Avoid bright lightening and limit possible distractions when about to sleep 
  2. Set up strict sleep rules
  3. Engage self in relaxation exercises 
  4. Adopt the use of cognitive behavioral therapy 
  5. Visit sleep therapists 
  6. Speak to your nurse or doctor about insomnia or difficulty sleeping


Adelusi Kehinde Beatrice is a final year Nursing student at the University of Ibadan, Oyo State. She derives pleasure from making impacts via her health write ups and health lectures.

April 05, 2019

Gonorrhea: What Is It | Symptoms | Treatment | Prevention

Written By: Omotoso Christianah (RN,)

Gonorrhea is an infection caused by a sexually transmitted bacterium that can infect both males and females. Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix.

Gonorrhea is most commonly spread during sex. But babies can be infected during childbirth if their mothers are infected. In babies, gonorrhea most commonly affects the eyes.

Gonorrhea is a common infection that, in many cases, causes no symptoms. You may not even know that you're infected. Abstaining from sex, using a condom if you do have sex and being in a mutually monogamous relationship are the best ways to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

Fast facts about gonorrhea

  • Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Gonorrhea can be passed from mother to baby during delivery.
  • Gonorrhea and chlamydia can be experienced simultaneously.
  • If untreated, gonorrhea can increase a person's risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.

Causes of Gonorrhea

  • Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The gonorrhea bacteria are most often passed from one person to another during sexual contact, including oral, anal or vaginal intercourse.
  • The infection is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person involving the penis, vagina, anus, or mouth. Men do not need to ejaculate to transmit or acquire gonorrhea.
  • It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during delivery

Risk factors of Gonorrhea

Factors that may increase your risk of gonorrhea infection include:

  1. Younger age
  2. A new sex partner
  3. A sex partner who has concurrent partners
  4. Multiple sex partners
  5. Previous gonorrhea diagnosis
  6. Having other sexually transmitted infections

Gonorrhea can also affect these parts of the body:

Rectum: Signs and symptoms include anal itching, pus-like discharge from the rectum, spots of bright red blood on toilet tissue and having to strain during bowel movements.

Eyes: Gonorrhea that affects your eyes may cause eye pain, sensitivity to light, and pus-like discharge from one or both eyes.

Throat: Signs and symptoms of a throat infection may include a sore throat and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

Joints: If one or more joints become infected by bacteria (septic arthritis), the affected joints may be warm, red, swollen and extremely painful, especially when you move an affected joint.

Symptoms of Gonorrhea in men and women

Symptoms of Gonorrhea

Symptoms may be absent despite an active gonorrheal infection. Symptoms can appear anywhere from 1-14 days following exposure to the infection.

Men and women experience slightly different symptoms; these can include:

Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Men:

  1. white, yellow, or green urethral discharge, resembling pus
  2. inflammation or swelling of the foreskin
  3. pain in the testicles or scrotum
  4. painful or frequent urination
  5. anal discharge, itching, pain, bleeding, or pain when passing stools
  6. itching, difficulty swallowing, or swollen neck lymph nodes
  7. eye pain, light sensitivity, or eye discharge resembling pus
  8. red, swollen, warm, painful joints

Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Women

  • painful sexual intercourse
  • fever
  • yellow or green vaginal discharge
  • vulvar swelling
  • bleeding in-between periods
  • heavier periods
  • bleeding after intercourse
  • vomiting and abdominal or pelvic pain
  • painful or frequent urination
  • sore throat, itching, difficulty swallowing, or swollen neck lymph nodes
  • eye pain, light sensitivity, and eye discharge resembling pus red, swollen, warm, painful joints

Anal(Anus) gonorrhea signs  may include:

  • itching, bleeding, or pain with passing bowel movements
  • anal discharge
  • An itching or burning sensation in the eyes may be a symptom of conjunctivitis .
  •  If infected semen or fluid comes into contact with the eyes, a person can develop conjunctivitis.

Treatment of Gonorrhea

Antibiotics: a doctor will likely administer both a shot (ceftriaxone) and an oral medication (azithromycin).

Abstaining from sexual intercourse - until treatment is complete, there is still a risk of complications and spread of infection.

Repeat testing in some cases - it is not always necessary to be tested to make sure the treatment has worked. However, the CDC recommends retesting for some patients, and a doctor will decide if it is necessary. Retesting should be performed 7 days after treatment.

If a woman is pregnant and infected with gonorrhea, the infant will be given an eye ointment to prevent gonorrhea transmission. However, antibiotics may be required if an eye infection develops.

Complications of Gonorrhea

Complications of Gonorrhea

There are many serious potential complications, which highlights the need for a quick diagnosis and treatment if symptoms occur.

 In women, gonorrhea can lead to:

  • pelvic inflammatory disease, a condition that can cause abscesses
  • chronic pelvic pain
  • infertility
  • ectopic pregnancies - pregnancy where the embryo attaches outside of the uterus

 In men, a gonorrheal infection can lead to:

• epididymitis - inflammation of the epididymis, which controls the production of sperm
• infertility

Both men and women are at risk of developing a life-threatening disseminated gonococcal infection when gonorrhea is untreated. This type of infection is often characterized by:

  • fever
  • arthritis
  • tenosynovitis - inflammation and swelling around tendons
  • dermatitis


❤Those infected with gonorrhea are also at a
higher risk of contracting HIV or, if already HIV positive, spreading HIV in addition to gonorrhea.

❤Further complications of a gonorrheal infection can occur in pregnant women during delivery; it is possible to pass the infection to the child. Gonorrhea passed to an infant can cause joint infection, blindness, or a life-threatening blood infection.

❤Also, infected women are at an increased risk for premature labor or stillbirth if left untreated

Prevention of Gonorrhea

Prevention of Gonorrhea

 Take steps to reduce your risk of gonorrhea:

  • Use a condom if you choose to have sex.
Abstaining from sex is the surest way to prevent gonorrhea. But if you choose to have sex, use a condom during any type of sexual contact, including anal sex, oral sex or vaginal sex.

  • Ask your partner to be tested for sexually transmitted infections. 
Find out whether your partner has been tested for sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea. If not, ask whether he or she would be willing to be tested.

  • Don't have sex with someone who has any unusual symptoms. 
If your partner has signs or symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection, such as burning during urination or a genital rash or sore, don't have sex with that person.

  • Consider regular gonorrhea screening. 
Annual screening is recommended for all sexually active women less than 25 years of age and for older women at increased risk of infection, such as those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection.

Regular screening is also recommended for men who have sex with men, as well as their partners.

  • To avoid reinfection with gonorrhea, abstain from unprotected sex for seven days after you and your sex partner have completed treatment and after resolution of symptoms, if present.