November 08, 2019

Candidiasis infection: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Candidiasis is a fungal infection typically on the skin and the mucous membranes that is caused by candida.  .

Types of candidiasis

  • Oropharyngeal candidiasis or Oral thrush: Candidiasis that occurs in the mouth when candida ablicans accumulates in the mouth.
  • Vaginal candidiasis: Candidiasis in the vagina is commonly called a vaginal yeast infection or vaginal thrust.
  • Nail candidiasis: When dermatophytes infect the nails, the nails become thick, swollen and tender, split, become dull, and may fall off.
  • Armpit candida: when candida species affects the skin under armpit eventually skin turns red and can be little raw.

Causes of candidiasis

Candidiasis can be triggered by the following
  • Antibiotics
  • Steroids
  • Contraceptive pills
  • Catheters and IV drips
  • Pregnancy
  • Menstruation
  • Sperm
  • Diabetes

Risk factors of candidiasis

  • Patients who have a central venous catheter
  • When consumed with broad-spectrum antibiotics
  • Very low neutrophil in blood
  • People who experience kidney failure or undergoing hemodialysis
  • People who underwent surgery, especially gastrointestinal surgery
  • Eating a diet high in sugar and refined carbs
  • High alcohol intake
  • A weakened immune system
  • Taking oral contraceptives
  • High-stress levels

Symptoms of candidiasis

  • Oral Thrush
  • Tiredness and Fatigue
  • Recurring Genital or Urinary Tract Infections
  • Digestive Issues
  • Sinus Infections
  • Skin and Nail Fungal Infections
  • Joint Pain

Complications due to candidiasis

  • Depression
  • Psychosexual problems
  • Male thrush- If a candidiasis woman is having sexual contact with their partner male thrush arises.
  • If vaginal candidiasis is left untreated, it can cause vaginitis, which is an inflammation of the vagina
  • Fungal infections- The most common fungal infection that can occur is tinea (ringworm)


Treatment of candidiasis

Treatment of candidiasis varies, depending on the area affected:
  • Thrush – Usually treated with topical, antifungal medications such as nystatin (Mycostatin and others) and clotrimazole.
  • Oesophagitis  – it can be treated with an oral anti-fungal drug such as fluconazole.
  • Cutaneous candidiasis – This skin infection can be effectively treated with a variety of antifungal powders and creams. The affected area must be kept clean and dry and protected from chafing.
  • Vaginal yeast infections: Vaginal yeast infections can be treated with antifungal medications such as butoconazole (Femstat), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat, Vagistat, and others), nystatin (Mycostatin and others), and tioconazole (Monistat-1, Vagistat-1). A single dose of oral fluconazole can be used. Sex partners usually do not need to be treated.
  • Deep candidiasis: This infection usually starts with an intravenous anti-fungal drug, such as voriconazole or fluconazole. People with very low white blood cell counts may need an alternative intravenous anti-fungal drug, such as caspofungin or micafungin.

Prevention of candidiasis

  • Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and non-fat dairy products.
  • Control diabetes: Good control of blood sugar levels decreases the risk of yeast infections anywhere on your body.
  • Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics

November 03, 2019

Getting away from bad breath-halitosis


Halitosis is a condition in which a person emanates a persistent, unpleasant odour from their mouth. This is often called bad breath.
Halitosis can result from poor dental health habits and may be a sign of other health problems.

What causes halitosis 

●A dry mouth
●Post nasal drip
●A diet high in proteins
●Smoking
●Alcohol
●Hormonal changes
●Medications which have dry mouth side effects
●History of diabetes

What are the signs and symptoms of halitosis 

●The most obvious sign or symptom of bad breath is noticing an unpleasant smell coming from the mouth
●Unpleasant or sour taste or changes in taste
●Dry mouth, and a coating on the tongue.

How is halitosis treated 

●Brush teeth and tongue: Be sure to brush at least twice a day, preferably after each meal.
●Floss: Flossing reduces the build-up of food particles and plaque from between the teeth. Brushing only cleans around 60 percent of the surface of the tooth.
●Brush tongue: Bacteria, food, and dead cells commonly build up on the tongue, especially in smokers or those with a particularly dry mouth. A tongue scraper can sometimes be useful.
●Avoid dry mouth: Drink plenty of water. Avoid alcohol and tobacco, both of which dehydrate the mouth. Chewing gum or sucking a sweet, preferably sugar-free, can help stimulate the production of saliva. If the mouth is chronically dry, a doctor may prescribe medication that stimulates the flow of saliva.
●Diet: Avoid onions, garlic, and spicy food. Sugary foods are also linked to bad breath. Reduce coffee and alcohol consumption. Eating a breakfast that includes rough foods can help clean the back of the tongue.

What are the preventive measures of halitosis 

Preventing halitosis is always easier than treating it. By developing the right habits, you can effectively help prevent it.
●Eat foods rich in fiber: High fiber foods help prevent halitosis. Avoid eating heavily processed foods that contain refined carbohydrates such as cookies, cakes, sweets and ice cream.
●Use mouthwash: Some mouthwashes or oral rinses are effective at preventing bad breath. However, you should never use alcohol based mouthwashes because the alcohol makes the mouth very dry, which will actually make the problem worse.
●Drink green and black teas: They contain polyphenols that help eliminate sulfur compounds and reduce oral bacteria.
●Avoid drying medication: Try not to take antidepressants, diuretics, pain relievers, and antihistamines unless it is absolutely medically necessary. These drugs inhibit saliva flow and can cause chronic dry mouth.
●Avoid products with sodium lauryl sulfate or alcohol: Do not use any oral hygiene products that contain sodium lauryl sulfate or alcohol because the alcohol makes the mouth very dry, one of the most common causes of bad breath.
●Clean your mouth after eating meat, fish or dairy products: Practicing consistent and thorough oral hygiene is an effective prevention tool.
●Stop smoking: Studies have shown that smokers are at higher risk of developing periodontal disease and dry mouth. Furthermore, people who smoke may also engage in other habits that promote this condition such as dieting, drinking alcohol, and suffering from chronic anxiety conditions that require exacerbating prescription medicatcions.
●Breathe through your nose instead of your mouth: Try to address any snoring or sleep apnea issues that could be affecting your breath and causing dry mouth.
●Drink water: Keep your mouth moist by drinking plenty of water.
●Clean your dentures at least once a day: Practice the same, proper oral care that you would with your original teeth.
●Eliminate dairy products from your diet: Lactose intolerance can be an underlying cause of halitosis.


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), or premenstrual tension (PMT), is a set of symptoms, both physical and psychological, that some women experience before their periods. These symptoms usually go away when the period starts.

What are the causes of PMS

 Exact cause of premenstrual syndrome is unknown, but several factors may contribute to the condition:
•Cyclic changes in hormones: Symptoms of PMS change with hormonal fluctuations and disappear with pregnancy and menopause.

•Chemical changes in the brain: Fluctuations of serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter that's plays a role in mood states, could trigger PMS symptoms. Insufficient amounts of serotonin may contribute to premenstrual depression, fatigue, food cravings and sleep problems.

•Depression: Some women with severe premenstrual syndrome have undiagnosed depression, though depression alone does not cause all of the symptoms.

What are the symptoms of PMS

• insomnia
• nausea
• headache
• moodiness
• acne
• tension
• social withdrawal
• poor concentration
• change in libido
• depression
• confusion
• food cravings
• dizziness
• irritability
• anxiety
• hot flushes
• breast swelling and tenderness

Lifestyle changes 

•Eat regularly: eat small rather at a time, avoid excess salt, caffeine and carbonated drinks. If necessary, reduce your weight to an ideal level.

•Regular exercise often helps to reduce PMS symptoms.

•Do things that you find relaxing and enjoyable during this time. Stress aggravates PMS, so reduce stress wherever possible.

•Dress sensibly to cope with breast tenderness (e.g. a firm fitting bra and loose-fitting clothes around the chest).

•Some medicines may help for those with severe symptoms.
Examples of drugs that could help with premenstrual syndrome include: vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), analgesics, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal contraceptives and some antidepressant. If PMS persists discuss it with your health practitioner.

September 11, 2019

Dehydration- causes, symptoms and remedy


Dehydration occurs when you use or lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn't have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don't replace lost fluids, you will get dehydrated which could resulting in increase blood sodium and reduce blood volume.

What are possible causes of dehydration

▶️Diarrhoea
▶️Vomiting
▶️Bleeding
▶️Severe burns
▶️Excessive sweating
▶️Excessive urination
▶️Excessive fluid draining drugs

What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration

Symptoms

Signs of mild or moderate dehydration include:

▶️Thirst
▶️Dry or sticky mouth
▶️Inadequate urination
▶️Dark yellow urine
▶️Dry, cool skin
▶️Headache
▶️Muscle cramps

Signs of severe dehydration include:
▶️Very dry skin
▶️Feeling dizzy
▶️Rapid heartbeat
▶️Rapid breathing
▶️Sunken eyes
▶️Sleepiness, lack of energy, confusion or irritability
▶️Fainting

Remedies for dehydration 


The only effective treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and lost electrolytes. The best approach to dehydration treatment depends on age, the severity of dehydration and its cause.

For infants and children who are dehydrated from diarrhea, vomiting or fever, use an over-the-counter oral rehydration solution(ORS). These solutions contain water and salts in specific proportions to replace both fluids and electrolytes.

Start with about a teaspoon every one to five minutes and increase as tolerated. It may be easier to use a syringe for very young children.

Most adults with mild to moderate dehydration from diarrhea, vomiting or fever can improve their condition by drinking plenty water or other liquids. Diarrhea may be worsened by full-strength fruit juice and soft drinks.

September 06, 2019


Inflammation is a response to injury or resistance by the tissue.
Examples include, arthritis(Inflammation of the joint), appendicitis(Inflammation of the vermiform appendix), cystitis(Inflammation of the urinary bladder) and so on.
Inflammation may be acute, sub-acute or chronic. It maybe local or systemic response.

What causes inflammation

1. Biological causes: micro-organism, bacteria, viruses and fungi
2. Immunological causes: trauma and pressure
3. Thermal causes: extreme heat or cold
4. Chemical changes: strong acids and alkaline, pesticides, poisonous drugs, irritating gases.

What are the signs and symptoms of inflammation 

Localized inflammation

1. Pain
2. Swelling
3. Redness
4. Hotness
5. Loss of function
6. Formation of our

Systemic inflammation

1. Weakness
2. Headache
3. Loss of appetite
4. Leucocytosis
5. High temperature
6. Tiredness

How to manage inflammation

1. Rest: to conserve body energy and reduce physically aggravation. Local inflammated area could be put to rest by using splints and sandbags
2. Elevate: raise the affected part to increase blood flow and reduce swelling.
3. Diet: consider diet high in carbohydrate, protein and vitamin especially vitamin C for fast healing.
4. Apply hot or cold compress to relief pain

Medical treatment of inflammation

1. Analgesic to relieve pain e.g paracetamol
2. Antibiotics to combat infection e.g Ciprofloxacin
3. Anti-inflammatory to reduce inflammation e.g ibuprofen
4. Sedative to induce sleep e.g lexotan

August 28, 2019

What You Should Know About Premenstrual Syndrome


Most females undergo series of physical and/or psychological symptoms such as headaches, abdominal pain, bloating etc. One week or two prior to there period. This condition is know as Premenstrual syndrome.

In this article we will be looking at premenstrual syndrome, What PMS is? Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatments and much more.

What is premenstrual Syndrome?

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the name used for physical and emotional problems that occur prior to a womans menstrual period.

Symptoms may occur only one day or as long as 2 full weeks before the period starts. A woman may have only one symptom or she may have many.

Because the production of progesterone at the time of ovulation that seems to be associated with the onset of PMS, PMS can only occur during the time of ovulation until the menses begin (about 14 days).

Occasionally PMS symptoms may persist until the period is over, Problems that occur at other times during the month cannot be PMS.

What are the symptoms of PMS?

Symptoms tend to recur in a predictable pattern. But the physical and emotional changes your experience with premenstrual syndrome may vary from just slightly noticeable all the way to intense. Still, you don't have to let these problems control your life.

Treatments and lifestyle adjustments can help you reduce or manage the signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

Emotional Symptoms

👉 Tension or anxiety

👉 Depressed mood

👉 Mood swings and irritability or anger

👉 Appetite changes and food cravings

👉 Trouble falling asleep (insomnia)

👉 Social withdrawal

👉 Poor concentration

👉 Change in libido

Physical signs and symptoms

👉 Joint or muscle pain

👉 Headache

👉 Fatigue

👉 Weight gain related to fluid retention

👉 Abdominal bloating

👉 Breast tenderness

👉 Acne flare-ups

👉 Constipation or diarrhea

👉 Alcohol intolerance

For some, the physical pain and emotional stress are severe enough to affect their daily lives.

Regardless of symptom severity, the signs and symptoms generally disappear within four days of the start of the menstrual period for most women.

How do I know if I have PMS symptoms?

PMS symptoms usually occur 5-7 days before a girl/woman's menstrual period. There are actually a total of 150 known symptoms of PMS.

The most common symptoms include: mood swings, breast soreness, bloating, acne, cravings for certain foods, increased hunger and thirst, and fatigue.

Other symptoms may include constipation or diarrhea, irritability, and feeling blue or down in the dumps.

If you have any of these symptoms and they happen during the week before your period starts and go away when your period arrives or a few days later, you may have PMS.

If you feel blue or down in the dumps and these feelings last longer than the week before your period, its probably not related to PMS.

In this situation its particularly important to ask your primary care provider if you should talk to a counselor or therapist.

Since there are so many possible symptoms of PMS, its a good idea to keep track of them. Remember to note if the symptoms are mild, moderate, or severe.

Use a period and symptom tracker for 2-3 months and then bring it to your next medical appointment. A record of your symptoms can help your health care provider figure out the best treatment choices for you.

Key Facts on how to use a period and symptom tracker

👉 Review the sample Monthly Period & Symptom Tracker.

👉 Print out copies of My Monthly Period & Symptom Tracker.

👉 Put a check mark in the appropriate box (or boxes) for each day of the month. If you don't have any flow or any symptoms on any given day, leave the box empty. Refer to the Blood Flow Key at the bottom for Flow definitions.

👉 The dates at the top are the same as the dates in one month. Each month has 30 or 31 days (except for February which has 28 or 29 depending unless it is a leap year).

Remember to bring My Monthly Period & Symptom Tracker with you to your medical appointments.

Which non medical changes might help control PMS?

Nutrition and lifestyle changes are a first step.

The following suggestions are healthy recommendations for everyone and are particularly helpful for young women with PMS symptoms, according to research.

Nutrition Changes:

👉 Eat whole grains that are high in fiber (such as whole grain breads, whole wheat pasta, and high fiber cereals instead of white bread, white pasta, and sugary cereals).

Whole grains help to keep blood sugar levels more stable compared to refined grains such as white bread, which could keep cravings under control and prevent mood changes associated with PMS.

👉 Cut back on sugar and fat: Even though your body may be craving sweets or fast foods that are high in fat, try to limit these foods since they may add to your PMS symptoms such as bloating.

👉 Limit foods high in salt (sodium) for the few days before your period: For example, avoid: canned soups, Chinese food, hotdogs, chips, and pizza which are very high in sodium. Cutting down on sodium may help to control bloating by lowering the amount of fluid your body retains.

👉 Keep hydrated: Drink plenty of water to reduce bloating and help with digestion.

👉 Cut back on caffeine: Reducing the amount of caffeine you eat and drink (soda, coffee drinks, and chocolate) may help you feel less tense and may also ease irritability and breast soreness.

Try eating up to 6 small meals a day instead of 3 large ones and include a balance of foods and nutrients (lean protein, whole grain carbohydrates, fruits/veggies, and healthy fats such as olive oil or avocado) at each small meal. This will help keep your blood sugar levels even, which will give you energy that lasts.

👉 Dont forget calcium! Research studies have shown that getting 1300 mg of calcium per day helps with PMS symptoms such as mood swings, headaches, and irritability. This means you should eat or drink three to four servings of high calcium foods (such as milk, fortified OJ, or soy milk) each day or take calcium supplements.

Lifestyle changes

👉 Fit in exercise: Do aerobic exercise (such as running, dancing, or jump roping) for 30-60 minutes a day, 4 to 6 times a week.

👉 Dont miss your sleep: If youre a teen, you need about 9 hours of sleep each night.

👉 Try to maintain a regular schedule: This includes meals, exercise, and bedtime.

👉 Keep stress to a minimum: If possible, try to schedule events that you think could be stressful during the week after your period.
👉 Avoid alcohol: Drinking alcohol before your period can make you feel more depressed.

Are there medications that might help?

If your symptoms dont improve with a few nutrition and lifestyle changes, talk with your health care provider. He/she may be able to prescribe medicine that will help lessen or get rid of your discomforts.

There are many different medicines that are currently used to treat PMS symptoms.

The most commonly prescribed are oral contraceptives (birth control pills) which prevent ovulation and keep hormone levels even.

Most pills (particularly those that are low in progestin or contain drospirenone) can improve symptoms. Sometimes symptoms can improve even more if the pill is taken continuously (one active pill every day and no placebo pills).

Other medications include ibuprofen or naproxen sodium that can help to relieve lower back discomfort and headaches and mild diuretics such as Spironolactone to lessen bloating and mood changes.

If depression is a significant issue, your health care provider may prescribe antidepressants such as Fluoxetine, Sertraline.

Are there vitamins or minerals that will improve my symptoms?

Although more research studies are needed, there are certain vitamins and minerals that may help PMS symptoms. Several research studies show that calcium can significantly decrease many of the symptoms associated with PMS.

Make sure that you are getting the recommended 1300 mg/day from calcium- rich foods or drinks or from supplements. Other supplements that could help with PMS symptoms are magnesium (400 mg/ day), vitamin B6 (100 mg/day), and vitamin E (400 IU/day), but more research needs to be done.

Check with your health care provider about whether you should try them and how much you should take because taking high doses of supplements can have unpleasant or dangerous side effects. For example, high doses of magnesium may cause diarrhea in some people.

Sometimes other medical conditions can mimic or act like PMS symptoms, so its important to keep your health care provider up-to-date with any health issues you are having.

If your PMS symptoms are so severe that you feel very depressed, talk with a parent, guardian, or trusted adult, and make an appointment with your health care provider as soon as possible.


Remember Health Is Wealth 


Written by:  Isikadi Precious RN.

July 22, 2019

Home Remedies to Get Rid of Vaginal Odor


Unusual vaginal odor happens from time to time. Even when you’re taking good care of your body and your vagina, you may experience unfamiliar smells. What’s not normal, however, is persistent or strong odors.
The first question you should ask yourself if you consider your vaginal odor abnormal: Vaginas have natural odors and each woman’s odor is different. 
Vaginal odor is often more noticeable just after sex and can vary throughout the menstrual cycle. Normal sweating can also be a cause a vaginal odor. This is often where the the idea of using vaginal douching and other vaginal deodorant-type products comes to mind, but these products can actually increase irritation and other vaginal symptoms due to their chemical-filled ingredient list.
Instead of douching and other potentially toxic feminine hygiene products, try the following natural remedies.
1. Apple Cider Vinegar 
  • Apple cider vinegar contains amazing antibacterial and antiseptic properties that can help fight vaginal odor.
  • Taking a bath with apple cider vinegar can help fight off the toxins and bacteria that cause vaginal odor while restoring the acidic quality of the vaginal flora. Try drinking a glass of water mixed with one or two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar daily.
2. Baking Soda
  • Baking soda can be used to balance the pH level in your body. When the pH level is in balance, the problem of vaginal odor will drived away, which means you can add natural deodorizer to the list of baking soda uses. 
  • You can simply add half a cup of baking soda to your bathwater and soak for about 15–20 minutes. Then thoroughly dry your body before putting on your clothing. Make sure to not allow moisture to sit in any folds or the genital area of the body.
3. Probiotics
  • We love probiotics since they can help keep the gut healthy, but did you know that probiotics can do wonders for vaginal odor? Probiotic yogurt, for example, is rich in lactobacillus bacteria, which helps fight candida infection, a common cause of vaginal odor. It also helps restore the normal vaginal pH level, which can remove vaginal odor. 
4. White Vinegar and Sea Salt
  • While apple cider vinegar seems to get all the glory when it comes to home remedies, let’s not forget white vinegar. White vinegar can help neutralize odors by breaking down odor proteins, and a white vinegar bath may help eliminate vaginal odor and help restore pH levels in the vagina. 
  • Just a half cup each of white vinegar and sea salt in lukewarm bath water several times a week may do the trick.
5. Tea Tree Oil
  • Tea tree oil contains strong antifungal properties as well as being a great antiseptic. These characteristics help get rid of bacteria that may contribute to the problem of vaginal odor and discomfort. 
  • Add a few drops combined with water and witch hazel on a cotton pad and then applying it to the affected area daily can make a big difference. Make sure to dilute with the water and witch hazel since tea tree oil can cause some initial sensitivity to the groin area.
6. Garlic
  • It may seem odd to take one foul smell to get rid of another, but garlic is known for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. It’s a natural antibiotic that may be just the remedy for vaginal infections as well as vaginal odor. The antifungal properties that garlic contains can help fight a yeast infection, which, in turn, gets rid of bad bacteria. 
  • Just incorporate garlic in raw or cooked form, on a daily basis, into your meals. Garlic is available in capsule form at your health food store, or you can eat one or two raw garlic on an empty stomach with a glass of warm water.
7. Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
  • Fresh, organic, whole fruits and vegetables are always key to a healthy body and support vaginal health due to the numerous vitamins and minerals they contain. We know that vitamin C, found in citrus fruits, guava, strawberries, kiwi, and green and red peppers, is an immune system booster. 
  • Leafy greens should always be consumed in abundance since they help with circulation and prevent vaginal dryness. Eat plenty of spinach, kale, cabbage, salad, and other leafy greens by including them in your salads and smoothies. The avocado stimulates vaginal health and also helps with libido because it contains vitamin B6 and potassium, which supports healthy vaginal walls, reducing the risks of infection and bacterial growth. (9)
8. Nuts and Seeds
  • Adding nuts to your daily nutrition helps prevents vaginal dryness because they contain vitamin E. Look for sunflower seeds, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts. Almonds and pumpkin seeds are also rich in zinc, which helps regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce itching and other symptoms of dryness that can cause bacterial growth and odor. 
9. Water
  • I cannot stress enough the importance of water and lots of it. The mucous vaginal membranes need water to function properly so they remain well-hydrated. Water helps lubricate your vagina naturally, which aids in diminishing vaginal smells. 

July 20, 2019

First aid for strain and sprain, with common questions and answers


Strains are injuries to muscle or tendons (which connect muscle to bone) due to overstretching. Sprains involve a stretch or a partial tear of ligaments (which connect two bones).

Signs and Symptoms of strain and sprain 

pain in the joint or muscle
swelling and bruising
warmth and redness of the injured area
trouble moving the injured part

What to Do


Make sure you stops activity right away, then remember RICE: Rest, Immobize, Cold, Elevate.

Rest: Do not move or straighten the injured area
Ice: Apply an ice pack to the injury. This will reduce the swelling and pain
Compress: support the injured part with elastic wrap or bandage. Specialized braces, such as

Elevate: Elevate the injured part only if it  does not cause more pain

Commonly asked questions and answers 

Q1. How can I tell if someone has a strain or sprain?
Sprain and strain are more common injuries where there has been a sudden unusual movement to a part of the body. The person may have pain, swelling and bruising around muscle or joint. If at the joint, person may find it difficult to move limb.

Q2. What is the difference between an ice pack and cold compress?
An ice pack is a freezes water that is wrapped with towel for cold compress. Cold compress doesn't hace to use ice, it could also use anything could, such as towel soaked in cold water. When using ice, make sure you don't put it directly on your skin.

Q3. How long should i leave the ice pack on the injury? 
It is recommended that ice pack wrapped with towel should not stay longer than 20 minutes on your skin.

Q4. What do I do after I have put an ice pack on the injury? 
Support the injured part in a raised position and apply bandage. Ensure bandage is not too tight.

Q5. Should I call an ambulance? 
Most strains and sprains respond to rest and cooling. If you suspect that the bone is broken, if you are unable to walk, if the limb is angled, or if pain is severe, then go to hospital.

Q6. I've heard that you can use warm cloth as alternative to cold compress. Is this wrong? 
This is not recommend first aid. Ice is the most effective way of reducing swelling and pain


July 17, 2019

Canker sores: causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.



Canker sore is the most painful sores in the mouth. The cause is unknown but thought to be associated with stress or tissue injury which could trigger or aggravate a canker sore.

Other triggers may include: poor nutrition, food allergies, menstruation, certain foods - including citrus or acidic fruits and vegetables (such as lemons, oranges, pineapples, apples, figs, tomatoes, and strawberries), can trigger a canker sore or make the problem worse.

It’s also the most common type of mouth ulcer. Some people notice them inside their lips or cheeks. They’re usually white or yellow and surrounded by red, inflamed soft tissue.
Canker sores are different from fever blisters, which usually are on the outside of the lips or the corners of the mouth. Unlike fever blisters, canker sores are not contagious.

Types of canker sore


  • Simple canker sores; These may appear three or four times a year and last up to a week. They typically occur in people within the ages of 10 to 20.
  • Complex canker sores; These are less common and occur more often in people who have previously had them.


What are the symptoms of canker sore 


  • Small white or yellow oval-shaped sore in your mouth
  • Painful red area in your mouth
  • Tingling sensation in your mouth

In some cases, other symptoms may also be present, this include the following:

  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Fever
  • Feeling unwell

How you can prevent canker sore


  • Employ stress reduction methods and calming techniques, such as deep breathing and meditation
  • Avoid excessive irritating foods including acidic or spicy foods.
  • Avoid irritation from gum chewing.
  • Brush your teeth with a soft brush after meals and floss daily which will keep your mouth free of irritating foods.

How canker sore can be treated 


  • Canker sores usually heal without treatment. However, there are many helpful lifestyle changes you can make to treat canker sores.
  • Brush and floss your teeth regularly to prevent a bacterial infection.
  • Avoid spicy foods to speed up the healing process.
  • Drinking milk or eating yogurt or ice cream can also help reduce the pain.
  • Pain can sometimes be severe. You can lessen the discomfort by gargling with mouthwash or salt water. It may feel uncomfortable at first, but it will help reduce pain.

Some over-the-counter topical products can help relieve and heal sores, these include the following:

  • Benzocaine (Orabase, Zilactin-B, Kank-A)
  • Hydrogen peroxide rinses (Peroxyl, Orajel)
  • Fluocinonide (Vanos)

Your doctor or dentist may prescribe:

  • Antimicrobial mouth rinse, such as Listerine or mouth rinses with chlorhexidine (Peridex, Periogard)
  • Antibiotic, such as mouthwashes or pills with doxycycline (Monodox, Adoxa, Vibramycin)
  • Corticosteroid ointment, such as hydrocortisone hemisuccinate or beclomethasone
  • Mouthwash, especially one that contains dexamethasone or lidocaine for inflammation and pain



Resources
Healthline: www.healthline.com/health/canker
WebMD: https://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/canker-sores
https://www.webmd.com/oral-health/ss/slideshow-mouth-problems



June 19, 2019

Interesting facts about Dyspareunia Popularly known as Painful Intercourse


Painful intercourse can occur for reasons that range from structural problems to psychological concerns. Many women have painful intercourse at some point in their lives. 

The medical term for painful intercourse is Dyspareunia, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain that occurs just before, during or after intercourse. Talk to a health care provider if you are having painful intercourse. Treatments focus on the cause, and can help eliminate or lessen this common problem.

What things can cause painful intercourse? 
The problems that can cause pain with intercourse are listed below;
➣Vaginal dryness 
➣Vaginal infections
➣Physical problems
➣Childbirth-related problems

Some myths about painful intercourse;
The size of a man’s penis almost never causes continued painful intercourse. The vagina can stretch to accommodate whatever size penis a woman’s husband has. This is illustrated by the fact that the vagina stretches enough to allow the passage of a baby’s head in delivery. Read also: Health Benefits Of Morning Sex

Some women also believe, because they have been told so that painful intercourse is caused by a tipped or retroverted uterus. One-third of all women have a tipped uterus. It is perfectly “normal” position for the uterus and is almost never the cause of painful intercourse.

What are the possible solutions to some of the under listed problems that causes painful intercourse?

Fear of intercourse: fear of intercourse can cause a painful intercourse. Some women have not dealt well with their sexuality and enter marriage with a distorted view of their bodies, sex or men. Distorting or failing to understand the healthy biblical view of sex can color a woman’s attitude towards sex. A lack of adequate sex education can inhibit a healthy sex life.

Many experts who write about sexual problems often attribute such difficulties to a woman being “overly religious” and inhibited. Actually, it has recently been shown that the healthier a woman’s relationship with God is, the happier will be her sex life.

It is important that every couple planning marriage have premarital counseling and that every woman has pelvic examination before marriage it will help eliminate most concerns about intercourse that couples have on entering marriage.

Vaginal dryness: Vaginal dryness can result from inadequate lubrication. It is normal for a woman to have less lubrication immediately after a period, after menopause, and if she is not fully sexually excited. If discomfort during intercourse is only as a result of poor lubrication at those certain times, you can assume that you are normal. Then you merely use a lubricant when you need it.

Vaginal infection: the vaginal infection that most often causes pain with intercourse is monilia vaginitis. Trichomoniasis, even bacterial vaginosis which can sometimes cause itching in the vagina and vulva, can also cause pain with intercourse. In addition, genital warts (Condyloma) located at the entrance to the vagina can cause painful intercourse.
A vaginal infection should be treated by your health care provider. When the infection is cleared, the pain normally stops. 

Physical problems: Example of some of the physical problem that can cause painful intercourse are as follows:
  • Low grade Pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • A Batholin gland infection 
  • Congenital abnormalities of the hymen and vagina
  • An IUD (Intrauterine Device).

Problems associated with pregnancy and childbirth: Many women find intercourse within the last two or three months uncomfortable and at times painful, but it is not really dangerous. Discomfort is due to the swelling of the vagina and vulvar tissues and the fullness of the pelvic structures because of the presence of the baby and the enlarged uterus.

Note: Episiotomies or tears of the vagina is one of the things that can cause pain with intercourse. Occurs mostly when the vagina heals with scarring and is usually worse if a woman is nursing. One of the most common cause of painful intercourse related to childbirth is when a woman is nursing, while a woman is nursing, the Pituary gland suppresses the production of estrogen from the ovaries and stimulates the production of milk from the breasts. This inadequate estrogen causes the vagina to become dry and sensitive. Painful intercourse is common in nursing mothers and a vaginal lubricant can help reduce the dryness.

Remember Health is Wealth 

Written By: ISIKADI PRECIOUS  RN.